LEADERSHIP SPIRITUAL

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Minggu, 08 Mei 2011

Software Kalkulasi Cetak Murah


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Aplikasi Software Cetak
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Sabtu, 07 Februari 2009

Toward a theory of spiritual leadership PART 1


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Toward a theory of spiritual leadership
Louis W. Fry*
Tarleton State University-Central Texas, 1901 South Clear Creek Road, Killeen, TX 76549, USA

Abstract
A causal theory of spiritual leadership is developed within an intrinsic motivation model that incorporates vision, hope/faith, and altruistic love, theories of workplace spirituality, and spiritual survival. The purpose of spiritual leadership is to create vision and value congruence across the strategic, empowered team, and individual levels and, ultimately, to foster higher levels of organizational commitment and productivity.
I first examine leadership as motivation to change and review motivation-based leadership theories.
Second, I note the accelerating call for spirituality in the workplace, describe the universal human need for spiritual survival through calling and membership, and distinguish between religion and spirituality. Next, I introduce a generic definition of God as a higher power with a continuum upon which humanistic, theistic, and pantheistic definitions of God can be placed. I also review religiousand ethics-and-values-based leadership theories and conclude that, to motivate followers, leaders must get in touch with their core values and communicate them to followers through vision and personal actions to create a sense of spiritual survival through calling and membership.
I then argue that spiritual leadership theory is not only inclusive of other major extant motivationbased theories of leadership, but that it is also more conceptually distinct, parsimonious, and less conceptually confounded. And, by incorporating calling and membership as two key follower needs for spiritual survival, spiritual leadership theory is inclusive of the religious- and ethics and valuesbased approaches to leadership. Finally, the process of organizational development and transformation through spiritual leadership is discussed. Suggestions for future research are offered.
1. Introduction
With the dawn of a new century, there is an emerging and exponentially accelerating force for global societal and organizational change. From this realization has come a call for more holistic leadership that integrates the four fundamental arenas that define the essence ofhuman existence—the body (physical), mind (logical/rational thought), heart (emotions, feelings), and spirit (Moxley, 2000).
One of the major driving forces behind this phenomenon is the Internet, which is bringing about forces for change at seemingly light-year speed. Responding to these forces will require a major organizational transformation to a learning organizational paradigm that is radically different from the traditional centralized, standardized, and formalized bureaucratic organizational form based on fear that has been the dominant organizational paradigm since the beginning of the industrial revolution (Ancona, Kochan, Scully, Van Maanen, & Westney, 1999; Moxley, 2000).
A learning organization is one in which expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured and collective aspiration is set free. People in learning organizations are empowered to achieve a clearly articulated organizational vision. They are continually learning to learn together to expand their capacity to create desired results (Senge, 1990). Quality products and services that exceed expectations characterize learning organizations. This new networked or learning organizational paradigm is radically different from what has gone before: It is love-led, customer/client-obsessed, intrinsically motivated, empowered team-based, flat (in structure), flexible (in capabilities), diverse (in personnel make-up) and networked (working with many other organizations in a symbiotic relationship) in alliances with suppliers, customers/clients, and even competitors, innovative, and global (Ancona et al., 1999).
The employees of learning organizations are characterized as being open and generous, capable of thinking in group teams, and risk-takers with the ability to motivate others (Ancona et al., 1999). Furthermore, they must be able to abandon old alliances and establish new ones, view honest mistakes as necessary to learning, and ‘‘celebrate the noble effort’’ and exhibit a ‘‘do what it takes’’ attitude versus the more traditional ‘‘not my job’’ attitude endemic to bureaucracy. Here, people are empowered with committed leaders at the strategic, empowered team, and personal levels that act as coaches in a ‘‘learning organization’’ constantly striving to listen, experiment, improve, innovate, and create new leaders (Ancona et al., 1999; Bass, 2000; McGill & Slocum, 1992). For the learning organization, developing, leading, motivating, organizing, and retaining people to be committed to the organization’s vision, goals, culture, and values are the major challenge.
A major proposition of this review is that spiritual leadership is necessary for the transformation to and continued success of a learning organization. Spiritual leadership taps into the fundamental needs of both leader and follower for spiritual survival so they become more organizationally committed and productive. I will argue that previous leadership theories have focused in varying degrees on one or more aspects of the physical, mental, or emotional elements of human interaction in organizations and neglected the spiritual
component. I define spiritual leadership as comprising the values, attitudes, and behaviors that are necessary to intrinsically motivate one’s self and others so that they have a sense of spiritual survival through calling and membership
This entails
1. creating a vision wherein organization members experience a sense of calling in that their
life has meaning and makes a difference;
2. establishing a social/organizational culture based on altruistic love whereby leaders and
followers have genuine care, concern, and appreciation for both self and others, thereby
producing a sense of membership and feel understood and appreciated.
I first examine leadership as motivation to change and review motivation-based path–goal, charismatic, transactional, and transformational leadership theories. I then note the accelerating call for spirituality in the workplace, describe the universal human need for spiritual survival through calling and membership, make a clear distinction between religion and spirituality, and, drawing from the works of Horton (1950) and Smith
(1992), introduce a generic definition of God as a higher power and a continuum upon which atheistic, humanistic, theistic, and pantheistic definitions of God can be placed. I
also review religious- and ethics and values-based leadership theories that emphasize that leaders must get in touch with their core values and communicate them to followers
through vision, values, and personal actions. In doing so, leaders must be attuned to
satisfying followers’ needs for spiritual survival through the universal spiritual values of
humility, charity, and veracity.
Next, a causal theory of spiritual leadership is offered within an intrinsic motivation model that incorporates vision, hope/faith, and altruistic love, theories of workplace spirituality and spiritual survival, and the organizational outcomes of commitment and productivity. I then demonstrate that spiritual leadership theory is not only inclusive of other major extant theories of motivation, but that it is also more conceptually distinct and less conceptually confounded. In addition, spiritual leadership theory explicitly incorporates
specific and theoretically relevant leader and follower higher order needs and cultural and organizational effectiveness dimensions into a causal model framework—something no other leadership theory has done to date. At the same time, by incorporating calling and membership as two key dimensions of spiritual survival, spiritual leadership theory also is inclusive of the religious- and ethics and values-based approaches to leadership. The process of organizational transformation and development through spiritual leadership and
the learning organizational paradigm is discussed. Suggestions for future research are offered.
2. Leadership and motivation
Although leadership has been a topic of interest for thousands of years, scientific research in this area was only begun in the 20th century. Early research, building upon the great man theory of leadership (Judge, Bono, Ilies, & Gerhardt, 2002), found that the situation also plays a vital role in determining leader effectiveness and that; to be effective, leaders must behave differently in different situations (Stogdill, 1974). The focus then shifted to discovering which behaviors and circumstances must be joined to produce effective group and organizational outcomes. Early research at Michigan and Ohio State universities discovered that leaders must attend to both task-oriented and social/emotional issues through directive and supportive behaviors.
By the late 1960s, full-blown ‘‘contingency theories’’ were developed. Contingency leadership theory posits that for a leader to be effective there must be an appropriate fit between the leader’s behavior and the conditions of the situation. One of the more advanced contingency theories is the path–goal theory of leadership that formally links leadership and motivation theory (effort!performance!reward). Path–goal theory adds participative and achievement-oriented leader behaviors to directive and supportive behaviors to address the effort–reward linkage, performance–reward linkage, establish stretch performance goals, and
clarifies of followers’ need for rewards (House & Mitchell, 1974). Finally, substitutes for leadership theory (Kerr & Jermier, 1977) identifies aspects of the situation that act to neutralize or substitute for leader behavior. ‘‘The idea that leaders could analyze their situation and tailor their behavior to it was compelling and is the foundation for much leadership training today’’ (Daft, 2001).
Beginning in the 1980s, there began to be a shift in focus from behavioral contingency leadership theories of individuals in groups (House, 1996) to strategic leadership that emphasized vision, motivation, and control through values in clan or adaptability cultures. The uncertainty inherent in rapidly changing external conditions and environments caused researchers to begin to question the effectiveness of the traditional centralized, standardized, and formalized bureaucratic organizational paradigm. In addition, the decimation of traditionally U.S.-dominated industries, such as automobile and steel, by the Japanese led to intense scrutiny of Japanese ideas, such as team leadership and total quality management, as alternatives to bureaucracy (Ouchi, 1981; Peters & Waterman, 1982; Vroman & Luschinger, 1994).
Particularly effective for flexibility in rapidly changing organizational environments are the clan and adaptive cultures. The clan culture substitute’s control through values and beliefs for traditional bureaucratic control mechanisms like standardization, formalization, and centralization. Clan control primarily has an internal focus on the involvement and participation of employees to meet the expectations of a rapidly changing environment (Ouchi, 1981). It emphasizes the values of cooperation, consideration, agreement, fairness, and social equality. The adaptability culture has strategic leaders that support values promoting autonomy, individual initiative and responsibility, creativity, risk-taking, learning, and entrepreneurship that allow the organization to interpret and translate signals from the environment into new goals and strategies. Both the clan and adaptability cultures place an emphasis on flexibility in meeting the demands of an uncertain and ever-changingenvironment.
These developments led to an emerging awareness that, up until that time, theories of leadership generally had not incorporated, and addressed the conceptual distinction between management as control and leadership as motivation (Conger & Kanungo, 1988; Kotter, 1988; Maddock & Fulton, 1998). Both leadership and management are concerned with providing direction for the organization. However, management is about planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling. Leadership is about motivating people to change. Management is primarily focused on short-term results, creating organizational stability and control, and ensuring predictable performance—much like the operation of a home thermostat (Kotter, 1988). Although not explicitly focused at the strategic level, path–goal, charismatic (House & Howell, 1992) and transformational (Bass, 1999) theories of leadership focus on motivating followers.
For the present purpose, I will use the definition and generic process of leadership as motivation to change developed by Kouzes and Pozner (1987, p. 30)—‘‘Leadership is the art of mobilizing others to want to struggle for shared aspirations.’’ From their perspective leadership entails motivating followers by creating a vision of a long-term challenging, desirable, compelling, and different future. This vision, when combined with a sense of mission of who we are and what we do, establishes the organization’s culture with its fundamental ethical system and core values. The ethical system then establishes a moral imperative for right and wrong behavior, which, when combined with organizational goals and strategies, acts as a substitute (Kerr & Jermier, 1977) for traditional fear-led bureaucratic structure (centralization, standardization, and formalization) and, when L.W. Fry / The Leadership Quarterly 14 (2003) 693–727 697
coupled with a powerful vision, provides the roadmap for the changes to the learning organizational paradigm needed for organizational effectiveness in the 21st century. Thus, it is the act of establishing a culture with values that influences others to strongly desire, mobilize, and struggle for a shared vision that defines the essence of motivating through leadership.
2.1. Extrinsic versus intrinsic motivation
Motivation includes the forces, either external or internal to a person, that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action. Motivation is primarily concerned with what energizes human behavior, what directs or channels such behavior, and how this behavior is maintained or sustained. The basic building blocks of a generalized model of the motivation process are needs or expectations, behavior, goals or performance, rewards, and some form of feedback (Galbraith, 1977; Steers & Porter, 1983). Most contemporary theorists assume that people initiate and persist at behaviors to the extent that they believe the behaviors will lead to desired outcomes or goals (Deci & Ryan, 2000).
Motivation in the workplace results when leaders create an environment that brings out the best in people as they achieve and receive individual, group, and system-wide rewards. It refers to those desires that, coupled with expectation of reward contingent on performance, cause the individual to exert effort above minimum levels, be spontaneous, and exhibit exploratory/cooperative behaviors (Galbraith, 1977).
There are two basic types of motivation: extrinsic and intrinsic. Fig. 2 illustrates the distinction between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation consists of behaviors that are motivated by factors external to the individual. Extrinsic rewards are given by others and may be individual, group-based, or system-wide (Galbraith, 1977).
Examples include promotions, pay increases, bonus checks, pressure to perform, supervisory
behavior, insurance benefits, and vacation time. Extrinsic rewards originate externally and require meeting or exceeding the expectations of others. Under extrinsic motivation
individuals feel compelled to engage in task behavior for an outside source to satisfy lower
order needs to provide what they need (e.g., money) to survive. Our modern concepts of bureaucracy and extrinsic motivation are rooted in the experience of early efforts to create large military, religious, and feudal organizations, such as the Roman Army, Catholic Church, and Kingdom of England. The primary basis for motivation in these traditional centralized, standardized, and formalized bureaucratic organizations has been fear (Daft, 2001). The main benefit of bureaucracy and leading by fear is to create a control system that ensures minimum levels of effort, organizational commitment, and performance.
However, fear led bureaucracies also can prevent people from feeling good about their work and lead to avoidance behavior, including feelings of powerlessness and low confidence, low commitment, enthusiasm, and imagination (Ryan & Oestreich, 1991). Most importantly is the effect of reduced trust and communication so that important problems and issues are hidden or suppressed (Nyhan, 2000).
Intrinsic motivation is most basically defined as interest and enjoyment of an activity for its own sake and is associated with active engagement in tasks that people find interesting and fun and that, in turn, promote growth and satisfy higher order needs. Intrinsic motivation has been shown to be associated with better learning, performance, and well-being (Benware & Deci, 1984; Deci & Ryan, 1985; Valas & Slovik, 1993). It is believed to result from an individual’s basic need for competence, autonomy, and relatedness.
Competence is a feeling or sense of craftsmanship or artistry in task accomplishment, that one is responding well to task situations, has mastery of the task or its activities, and is confident about handling similar tasks in the future. Autonomy tends to increase intrinsic motivation to the extent that there is an internally perceived locus of causality, task accomplishment is under one’s control, and he or she feels free to exert extra effort in following their inner interests. Intrinsic motivation will also be more likely to flourish in contexts characterized by a sense of secure relatedness, especially when significant others in the task environment are experienced as warm and caring (Ryan & Grolnick, 1986; Ryan & La Guardia, 2000; Ryan, Stiller, & Lynch, 1994).
Intrinsic motivation at work is also manifested through autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Intrinsic motivation in the workplace requires some degree of autonomy or self-management. Intrinsically motivated workers feel competence and relatedness through working in empowered teams that are directing team activities toward a meaningful purpose and doing something the members regard as significant and meaningful. Individuals in empowered teams have a sense of ownership of the work and are completely engaged in its tasks, which require their best thinking and creativity. They take pride in their work and are excited in having a sense of progress and seeing the results of their efforts (Conger & Kanungo, 1988; Spreitzer, 1996; Thomas, 2000).
Intrinsic rewards involving task involvement are internal and under control of the individual and satisfy higher order needs for competency, self-determination, and selffulfillment. These rewards result from the internal experience one has in performing a task that one feels gives satisfaction through its performance. Solving a problem at work that benefits others that may fulfill a personal mission or purpose, being part of a ‘‘winning’’ team, L.W. Fry / The Leadership Quarterly 14 (2003) 693–727 699 or completion of a complex task that gives a pleasant feeling of accomplishment are examples. For individuals experiencing intrinsic motivation, the performance of the task becomes the reward. In this sense, performance and rewards are fused, indistinguishable, or become one and the same (see Fig. 2).
Intrinsic motivation at work can also occur through goal identification. Goal identification occurs to the extent that individuals have internalized into their own value systems the vision and values of the organization and the goals or subgoals the organization is pursuing (Galbraith, 1977). The goals have value to the individual because they are acquired through a long process of socialization in the organization or because they participated in developing the organization’s vision, values, and goals and have therefore have high acceptance of and are highly committed to them. The achievement of these goals then is instrumental in satisfying one’s higher order (spiritual) needs for self-esteem, relatedness, and growth. It is through this process that behaviors perceived to be instrumental to goal attainment acquire value and become intrinsically rewarding.

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Business Leadership - What it Takes to Differentiate Yourself in the 21st Century


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Business Leadership - What it Takes to Differentiate Yourself in the 21st Century

Business leadership is not about any single quality so much as it is about a number of qualities that come together to create something much stronger than any of those qualities alone. Business leadership is not so much about managing others and "taking charge" as it is about motivating by example.
So if business leadership is something that is difficult to pin down, what steps can you take so that you will find yourself recognized as a leader in this, the 21st century? What can you do to incorporate the principles of leadership into your life so that you will be able to achieve your goals and rise to the top in your organization or your career field?

One step is to look at those leaders who you admire. Whether you're inspiration comes from political leaders - those who have been able to unite the people of their country during difficult times - or from leaders within your own field, when you are looking for information that will help you to take on a business leadership role, it's important to understand what makes someone a leader.

In other words, when you are thinking about business leadership, it's important to take the time to understand courage, determination, and to learn more about the ways in which leaders speak to those who follow them. Ultimately, what you will find is that by embracing those qualities within yourself, you will be able to persevere and to reach the goals that you have set for yourself and for those who you are working with.

Ultimately, what you are likely to discover is that, in order to differentiate yourself in the 21st century and to take on a business leadership role, you will need to:

* Learn to set aside excuses. The majority of people who are in business find a way to come up with a number of excuses when something that they have been asked to do isn't done. Leaders, on the other hand, focus on getting the job done.

* Learn the value of making mistakes. When we make mistakes, it's important to take advantage of the lessons that come out of them so that we can use that knowledge to move forward.

* Learn to lead from within. When you are looking at business leadership characteristics, you'll see that those who are in a supervisory role are not just watching others and telling them what they do wrong; instead, when they see a problem they jump into the trenches and work with their staff, helping them to solve problems and to find creative solutions.

Business leadership is about working with others and motivating them to do more – to be more. When you're looking for a way to differentiate yourself from others, one of the best things that you can do is to work well with others, put forth your best effort at all times and to make sure that – at all times – you're making an effort to bring a team of people together.

Finally, remember this: business leadership is about having a willingness to try something new. To set yourself apart from the crowd, you need to look at the big picture – and then to get everyone else to see it too.

Copyright 2008, Cecile Peterkin.

Business Leadership - What it Takes to Differentiate Yourself in the 21st Century - To learn more about this author, visit Cecile Peterkin's Website.

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Developing Your Leadership Skills


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Developing Your Leadership Skills

Leadership is not always dependent upon being at the head of the crowd. It is more than a position. The next time you are in a meeting or a social function, see how quickly you can tell who the real leader is. It is not necessarily the person at the head of the table or the one with the title. It is the person other watch and listens to and naturally follows.

We all have areas in which we excel and from time to time we are all thrust into different leadership roles. Take advantage of those situations and use them to develop your leadership skills. Leadership takes time and experience to develop.

Qualities of a Leader

1. Perceived as positive and trustworthy
2. Must have clear values and live those values
3. Communicates directly
4. Forms intensive one-on-one relationships
5. See themselves as constantly evolving human being, focusing more inwardly than outwardly
6. Intuitive, understanding of what needs to be done
7. Finds self-esteem through self-reliance and personal expression
8. Courageous – must not balk at obstacles or become bewildered in the presence of adversity
9. Empathetic – appreciation and understanding of others values
10. Decisive – knowing when to act and when not to act
11. Accountable for personal actions
12. Dependable
13. Responsible
14. Stewardship
15. Self-confidence

Leadership, like swimming, cannot be learned by reading about it.
--- Henry Mintzberg



Developing Your Leadership Skills - To learn more about this author, visit Cecile Peterkin's Website.

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YOUR ROLE AS SUPERVISOR AND MANAGER


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YOUR ROLE AS SUPERVISOR AND MANAGER

Your life changes, the first time that you become responsible for the performance of a group. When you were an individual contributor, you had pretty much complete control over what to do in order to achieve better results. As a manager, you’re now responsible for other people’s performance! Once you become responsible for a group of people and their performance, that control disappears and is replaced with persuasion and influence.

No matter what you may have read in management literature, leadership, management, and supervision are not about what you are or the title you hold. They’re about your behavior and the “roles” you play while working with others to accomplish something of importance to the organization!
How do we become “Managers?”
For decades, if not centuries, scholars, leaders, and the people they lead, have been attempting to define the nature of effective management. Countless books and articles have been written containing definitive checklists of what it takes to be a manager.

One of the ironies of management is that most individuals become supervisors or managers because they are very good at performing within a particular job skill. People are rewarded with a promotion to a management position because they are good accountants, engineers, salespeople, marketers, etc. Typically, because these individuals have been so focused on what they are very good at “doing,” most have seldom thought about all the aspects of effective management. Nor is it likely that these individuals have asked themselves “soft” questions like: Why do people work?, What do they want from their jobs?, What is the nature of the relationship that “others” have with work?, How can human relationships be transformed to have a greater impact on the organization?, How will I, their manager, provide the kind of environment that encourages people to bring all of themselves to work, so that they are productive, personally satisfied, and have a significant impact on organizational strategy?

Instead of quickly learning about what’s expected of them as managers and assuming the role of managing others, many newly promoted people tend to stay in their “comfort zones” and begin to “micromanage” the people they are supposed to empower and lead. Another problem is that many managers in a new assignment have spent much of their time in other groups or disciplines and do not fully understand the mind-set of the people they are charged with managing or where their area of responsibility fits into the bigger picture.

Additionally, if the individual has had any training most likely they were formally or informally schooled in “traditional management.” The management skills they learned primarily dealt with planning, controlling, directing, and organizing. At the heart of most management training lays the drive for systemic, sophisticated, definitive rules, which are all aimed at consistency. This approach produces people who are experts within their own domain and who do everything in their power to do things right in accordance to a specific plan. Managers are typically compliance driven. This is both good and bad.

In contrast leadership focuses primarily on people, performance, and possibilities. In its most obvious form, leadership manifests itself in the future focus orientation of individuals and their behavior toward the importance of people. There is an inherent assumption by leaders that the capability of people is the most critical point of leverage in producing not only excellent, consistent results, but also in driving significant change for future success while meeting the urgent and immediate creative needs of the organization. Quoting Warren Bennis from his book, “On Becoming a Leader,” “Managers are people who do things right, while leaders are people who do the right things.” This is not to say that management is bad and leadership is good, what it does say is that both are needed and both are different. While the ideal is a blend of both in one individual, the reality is that individuals are far more likely to lean in one direction or the other.

Research on the theory of leadership has found that there are three basic ways people become leaders.

1. Small numbers of people become leaders because a crisis or important event causes a person to rise to the occasion. The event brings out some extraordinary leadership qualities in an otherwise ordinary person.
2. A few people have some strong personality traits that lead them naturally into a leadership role.
3. The most widely accepted theory today holds that people can choose to become leaders. People can learn leadership skills and modify their behavior to the extent that others will follow their lead. People with a passion to lead others can transform themselves into successful leaders.

A study conducted by the Gallup Organization came to the following conclusions. The core activities of a manager and a leader are simply different. It is entirely possible for a person to be a brilliant manager and a terrible leader. Conversely, great leaders can effectively delegate the details that need to be managed. The most important difference between a great manager and a great leader is one of focus. Great managers look inward; they look inside the organization, into each individual, at specific goals, tasks, and needs. In short, they look at the details. Great leaders by contrast, look outward. They look at the competition, out toward the future, and out toward alternative routes forward. They focus on broad patterns and finding connections, and then they press home their advantage where the greatest impact can be made. Leaders must be visionaries, strategic thinkers, and activators. They effectively delegate the details and take risks to move the organization forward. Note: The organization needs both brilliant managers and great leaders! Why do you think this is true?

The basic core competencies of organizational management:

The following list describes the roles, strengths and core competencies of the typically “good supervisor/manager” and the typically “good leader.”

MANAGERS LEADERS
Manage the present Focus on the future
Are compliance driven Are performance driven
Are efficient Are effective
Do things right Do the right things
Enforce the policies and regulations Promote values
Monitor people Inspire people
Train specific skills Educate, mentor, and coach
Perpetuate consistency Are change agents
Follow a vision Create the vision
React to customer problems Anticipate customer needs

As you can see, managers and leaders have complimentary roles, strengths and competencies that can both facilitate disciplined consistency and inspire innovative growth. Both roles appear to be very specific and, in a typical hierarchical organization, they are. However, consider the potential when all of the strengths described are blended within a team of people rather than focused on one or two people. This concept begins to bring the management role up and at the same time push the leadership role down into the organization. This “distributed management/leadership model” allows almost everyone to share in being a manager/leader depending on the situation and his or her talents and capabilities.

This blending of individuality and individual excellence is the key element of a fantastic delivery system, or what can be called a “management dream team.” This is a team where each individual’s strengths leverage every other team members’ strengths, creating a situation where the whole truly is greater than the sum of its parts!

Note: This approach does not change titles, but rather changes the roles and mind-set of all stakeholders and helps all stakeholders to be more engaged in the total process of running the business.
Roles and responsibilities of front-line managers: Front-line managers are defined as managers who have first-line responsibility for a work group of approximately 10 to 25 people. They are accountable to a higher level of management and are placed in the lower layers of the management hierarchy, normally at the first level.

The role typically includes a combination of:
• people management
• managing operational costs
• providing technical expertise
• organizing, such as planning work allocation
• monitoring work processes
• checking quality
• dealing with customers/clients
• measuring operational performance.

Why are front-line managers important? Front-line managers are often crucial in making the difference between low-performing and high-performing firms. Occupying a key position in the organization, they are the deliverers of success by implementing strategies that focus the efforts of individuals on business goals and translating them into positive outcomes.
Front-line managers typically have to implement policies such as appraisal or team briefing and have a major role to play in bringing these organizational policies “to life.” They are important in influencing employees’ attitudes towards the organization and their job, and “their behavior” is the most important factor in explaining the variation in both job satisfaction and job discretion, ie. the choice people have over how they do their jobs. Front-line managers are also one of the more critical factors in developing organizational commitment.
Botom line: Front line managers are important as they are the management eyes and ears of the company; they are the ones who have to deliver results through their people directly to the internal or external customer. They make sure commitments are kept!
Copyright Information:

You MAY reprint the information contained in this article as long as no portion of the contents are modified and it used “exclusively” within your organization. You must also give credit to information by including the tag line...

Roger M. Ingbretsen, Author, Speaker, Leadership Coach, Organizational and Career Developer. For more information, visit www.ingbretsen.com or call 509 999 7008.


YOUR ROLE AS SUPERVISOR AND MANAGER - To learn more about this author, visit Roger Ingbretsen's Website.

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Succession Leadership is the Success Lynch Pin for Individuals, Businesses and Organizations


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Succession Leadership is the Success Lynch Pin for Individuals, Businesses and Organizations

What makes some individuals to organizations more successful and sustainable than others? The answer simply is great and effective leadership. Much is written about leadership, as well it should, because bad leadership spells disaster!

In today’s business world, we see and hear of examples of failed, ineffective or just bad leadership. General Electric is one of the best examples were bad leadership has spelled disaster.

Under the leadership of Jack Welch who retired in 2001, General Electric grew to an international, multi-billion dollar. Since the new leadership of Jeff Immelt, the stock has dropped over 50% in the last 8 years. Now the firm is in survival mode instead of thriving mode. The decline in stock value began before the recent financial meltdown. Excuses can be made, but bottom line the reason for this decline is the bad succession leadership under the current Chief Executive Officer.

Closer to home, bad leadership can be viewed from regional business networking organizations to local governments. No matter the structure of any organization, be it for profit or not for profit, bad leadership will result in everything from a decline in customer loyalty to poor business results.

How to develop leadership that is effective has turned into an entire new industry that being succession leadership. With many baby boomers retiring, organizations are scrambling to develop great leaders from within and from outside of their ranks. Many of these firms are establishing their own Leadership Institutes to ensure succession leadership for the future viability.

Since succession leadership planning is gaining momentum, human capital talent management is now beginning to take a stronger hold within the global economy. Leadership Institutes within medium to larger firms are becoming far more commonplace than just a few year ago. This change in belief may also help to explain the increase in leadership coaching that small businesses to C Suite executives now embrace as a necessary business strategy.

Now, not later, is the time to start developing ethical and results driven leadership in your business by recognizing that succession leadership is the lynch pin to success. Implement a succession leadership program in your organization. Develop those hidden leaders and work with them to become leaders who will take your business to that next level of success.


Succession Leadership is the Success Lynch Pin for Individuals, Businesses and Organizations - To learn more about this author, visit Leanne Hoagland-Smith's Website.

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Good Leaders Must Be Good Followers


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Good Leaders Must Be Good Followers

Are you ready to lead?

Good Leaders, those that exhibit good leadership, true leadership, effective leadership, know they have to learn to be great followers first.

Joe and Lester, two directors in this organization, left the meeting with the Senior Vice President. The looked quickly to make sure no one was listening.

Joe, “Man, I can’t believe that idiot wants us to go back to using our old vendor. If our top priority is price, why in the heck are we going back to them?”

Lester, “What is rocks-in-his-head thinking? Their deadlines on delivery are a week longer than our current vendor. I don’t even get it. Hey, it’s almost lunch time. Why don’t we beat the crowd and head over to Papa Don Giovanni’s now?”
Joe, “Great idea. I am starving. Oh, hold on. I had a staff meeting scheduled. Let me call my admin and have her move the meeting to after lunch.”

Before we can become leaders we must learn how to follow

How would you feel if two important members of your team supported you in your meeting and then griped and moaned about you in the hall on the way back to their work-stations?

How would you feel if you had planned on attending a meeting and at the last minute the boss called to move the time?

How can you expect people to follow you if you are leading them astray?

As a leader you are always leading.
Your people watch as you walk into the room. Are you walking confidently? Are your shoulders hunched? Is your expression open or closed? Is there a frown on your face? Or a smile? If you are usually smiling, what does it mean when you are frowning? If you normally don’t greet your coworkers and today you do, what does it mean? Each and everything that you do, or don’t do, has meaning. You have to always think in terms of leadership.

AND IT IS ALWAYS ABOUT THEM!

As a leader you must be constantly aware of what you say and do and what you are not saying and not doing.
That one time where you don’t think anybody is listening is the one time when they will be.
That one time when you don’t think you are being watched is the one time that you will be.
Does this mean you have to be perfect? No. You do have to be constantly aware. You do have to always think in terms of leadership. Everything you do and don’t do leads.

Action Items.

Practice thinking in terms of leadership.

What is my expression saying?

Am I modeling behavior that I would find abhorrent in a follower?

What is my walk telling people?

What is my tone of voice saying or not saying?

I am walking the talk and talking the walk?

Ask your team if you model behaviors you expect from them.



Good Leaders Must Be Good Followers - To learn more about this author, visit John Cameron's Website.

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